A recent decision, UMG Recordings v. Veoh Networks, No. CV 07-5744 AHM (AJWx) (N.D. Cal. Sept. 19, 2009), by a federal district court provides a good example of the tensions sought to be balanced under the safe harbor provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (“DMCA”) and the way to successfully attain the benefits of one of these safe harbors. While the Veoh case can be viewed as but one of the many ongoing skirmishes pitting music and film industry giants against emerging video and music sharing websites, the decision serves as useful guidance for sites of all sorts that host user-generated content.
Veoh operates a widely used video sharing website. Not surprisingly, users sometimes post unauthorized copies of copyrighted materials, including UMG (Universal) music videos. Veoh maintains a clear copyright policy that is readily available to its users that prohibits posting of unauthorized content and Veoh’s normal practice is to remove promptly known infringing video postings. Veoh also employs filtering technology that automatically blocks postings of known infringing content. Notwithstanding these measures, UMG claimed that Veoh should have known that the type of site it operated would result in the posting of infringing content, that Veoh should have employed filtering technology earlier than it did, and that Veoh failed to remove improper videos based on UMG having merely identified UMG artists by name but not specific copyrighted videos.
Enter the DMCA. The DMCA attempts to strike a reasonable balance between the need to protect the legitimate rights of copyright holders, on the one hand, and the desire to avoid improper constraints on freedom of expression and also to allow the continued development of electronic communications platforms, on the other. As part of that balancing act, the DMCA contains in Section 512(c) a safe harbor provision against copyright infringement claims for internet service providers and other operators of websites that store user-generated content. The safe harbor shields an online service provider from liability if the provider:
- Does not have actual knowledge that the content is infringing, is not aware of facts or circumstances that would make apparent that infringing activity has occurred, or upon becoming aware of infringing content, acts promptly to remove or disable access to such content;
- Does not receive a direct financial benefit from infringing content where the provider also has the right and ability to control such content;
- Upon notification of claimed infringement, responds promptly to remove or disable such content; and
- Has adopted and reasonably implemented a policy that informs users that repeat infringers will have their access to the service terminated.
The Veoh court found that, contrary to the strained contentions of UMG, Veoh easily satisfied each of the safe harbor elements. The court noted that service providers are not required to take any particular actions just because infringing activity could be taking place and what the DMCA requires is notice of specific works claimed to be infringed not generalized assertions that all works involving a particular artist must be addressed. Providers are also not required to adopt any particular technology, such as filtering technology, or, if they choose to do so, adhere to a timetable preferred by a complainant. What is required is that the service provider act reasonably under the circumstances. For all these reasons, the court held that Veoh in fact acted reasonably and granted Veoh’s motion for summary judgment against UMG.
Like the sturdy little train engine of storybook fame, Veoh has seemingly become the “little website that could,” having now scored at least three successive court victories in as many years against claims of copyright infringement. However, operators of websites that are further below the radar screen should still take note of this case. Even though greater attention has been garnered by the music and film industries in notable online copyright cases, the types of well thought out steps implemented by Veoh to address issues of alleged infringement are ones from which any website with contributed content can benefit.